Bone-marrow transplant (BMT)



What is Leukemia?


Leukemia is usually thought of as a children’s condition, but it affects more adults. It’s more common in men than women and more in whites. There’s nothing you can do to prevent leukemia. It’s the cancer of your blood cells caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells in your body. They crowd out the red blood cells and platelets your body needs to be healthy. All those extra white blood cells don’t work right, and that causes problems.


What is Bone-marrow transplant (BMT)?


Bone-marrow transplantation replaces stem cells. It is used when stem cells or bone marrow have been damaged or destroyed by diseases including some types of cancer, Leukemia or by high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.


What are the different types of BMT?

There are two main types of BMT: Autologous and Allogeneic bone marrow transplant. In Autologous, Stem cells are taken from your child but in Allogeneic, the donor is another person. Other transplantation methods such as Umbilical cord blood are also available in which Stem cells are taken from an umbilical cord right after a baby’s birth. These stem cells grow into mature blood cells quicker and more effectively than stem cells from the bone marrow of another child or adult. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen in the transplantation bank until they are needed for a transplant.

Bone Marrow Transplant

Over the last decade, medicine has seen great advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Many people with the disease are living longer and many are cured. That’s thanks to cancer research and people who are willing to make sacrifices. Sacrifices such as donating bone marrow.



How long are you in the hospital after a bone marrow transplant?


Rehabilitation time for a patient to return to normal status varies depending on the patient’s condition and the transplant type, but it usually lasts about 2 to 6 weeks. During this time you have to stay in the hospital or visit the transplant center daily for at least a few weeks.


What are the side effects after BMT?


• Infections
• Low levels of platelets (thrombocytopenia) and red blood cells (anemia)
• Pain
• Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
• Breathing problems
• Organ damage: Short-term (temporary) liver and heart damage
• Graft failure
• Graft-versus-host disease(GVHD)


What are preparations for a Bone Marrow Transplant?


Your doctor will want to make sure your body is strong enough to go through a bone marrow transplant. The tests needed to be done that could be continued over several days including:
• Blood tests to see how well your liver and kidneys are working and to make sure you don’t have an infectious disease
• Chest X-rays to look for signs of lung disease or infection
• Electrocardiogram (EKG) to check your heart’s rhythm
• Echocardiogram (Echo) to look for problems in your heart and the blood vessels around it
• CT scan to see how healthy your organs are
• Biopsy to help your doctor predict if your cancer is likely to come back after the transplant.
Putting a catheter (a long thin tube) into a large vein in your neck or chest that will stay there throughout your transplant. This will make it easier to give you medicine. You also might get new healthy bone marrow cells through it.
Chemotherapy and Radiation: Before the transplant, you’ll need to do chemotherapy and possibly radiation to kill cancer cells in your body and make room for new stem cells. They also slow down your immune system so your body’s more likely to accept the transplant.



Why Iran?


Even though performing bone marrow transplant in Iran is cost-effective, proceeding treatment with expert specialists and professional medical care team along with developed technology improve the rank of Iran up to the third country for doing BMT among all other countries with the same technology in the world. There is full and developed bone marrow and stem cell transplant bank in Iran. Also, blood banks and other organ transplantation are fully active in our country. By considering the cost of accommodation and food during rehabilitation which is much lower than Asian and European countries, Iran is an ideal country for doing bone marrow transplants.



Comparison of bone marrow transplantation between Iran and other countries


Currently, a few countries such as India, Mexic, USA, Turkey, Jordan, S.Korea, Germany and Iran have the specialty and technology to perform bone marrow transplantation. Generally, Stem Cells transplant or BMT is very expensive in the USA or European countries. For example, it costs more than 300,000 $ in Europe. While the cost of bone marrow transplant in Iran estimated about 60,000 $ which is significantly lower than even other Asian countries such as India which is predicted to be more than 83000 $.


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